Culture and Education

Culture and Education

CULTURE IMPACT JOURNAL

Defining Culture – Impacting Our World

Special Editions

CULTURE AND EDUCATION

DECEMBER 2022

Edited by Huib Wursten

Publishers: 

Huib Wursten, huibwursten@gmail.com

Eric Alexander DeGroot,  eric.alexander.degroot@gmail.com

Table of content Culture and Education:

Editorial : Huib Wursten

Editorial Culture and Education

According to Google Scholar, the most cited article of all the papers I wrote about the influence of culture on societal issues is The impact of culture on Education. Can we introduce best practices in Education across countries? (see: https://www.academia.edu/22731263

 In this paper, published in 2013, the outcome of ranking countries on the quality of Education was explored. In particular, a report, “The Learning Curve” (2013), published by The Economist Magazine’s Intelligence Unit. In this report, an attempt was made to look for “best practices” – approaches that systematically lead to higher quality education, thereby enabling policymakers and practitioners in other countries to “copy and paste” and work towards educational reforms that have proven effective in raising educational achievement in some countries. The surprising conclusion from this report, however, is that almost no practices were found that could be implemented globally.

Because ideas about Education are constantly evolving, it seemed a good idea to come back to this theme nine years later and ask experienced authors to look at culture and Education again

 

Divya Varkey, Masako Kato, Huib Wursten:  “Educational practices and culture shock”

Abstract: Education is culturally very sensitive. What “works” in one culture might be seen as negative in some other cultures. This paper describes and analyzes the cultural experiences of expat parents from different cultures, primarily of the Indian and Japanese authors of this paper, sending their kids to schools in The Netherlands.

For the full article: Educational practices and culture shock.

 

 

Agata Sowinska: Dao, Li and Dalton education in China”

Abstract: Mark Clark (Clark M., 2004) once stated that `the modern society is in a deep crisis. Not only moral, spiritual but also aesthetic’. Therefore, there is a need to show the essence of alternative Education in a modern, constantly changing world. The following article takes an an attempt to show the essence of the Dalton Plan as an educational concept for children and teachers to undertake independent, creative, searching, innovative activities that contribute to children’s interests, learning styles and personalities in China.

For the full article:Dao, Li, and Dalton education in China

 

Fernando Lanzer: What are the objectives of Education in a challenging diverse world?

Abstract: The objectives of Education have been described differently in different cultures by many educators and policy makers. However, often, this has been done without an awareness of the underlying cultural values that support and influence these written concepts.

This paper will examine the formulation of educational objectives and make explicit the respective links to the underlying core values of their cultures, using Huib Wursten’s Mental Images as a reference framework. It will subsequently outline the need for a more comprehensive enunciation of educational objectives that can consider core culture value differences and still offer functional effectiveness across cultures in a challenging diverse world.

For the full article:What are the objectives of education a challenging diverse world?

 

 

Lisa DeWaard: Refections on the state: The public school models of the United States and Russia

Abstract: This paper examines two very different public schooling systems: The U.S. system and the Russian system. An overview of the historical and political contexts that were at work when each was designed is included. While both systems have changed over time, the founding principles guiding them remain largely the same. A thorough analysis of each approach using the Hofstede Six Dimensions of National Culture for each country reveals a strong resemblance between the underlying values of each nation and its corresponding educational system. Strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches are provided and expected outcomes are analyzed. The rather recent development of private schools in Russia since the revolution in 1991 demonstrates a desire on the part of some Russian parents for some deviation from the previous Soviet model; however, although quite popular, private schools are still quite few. Finally, recommendations for teachers working across these two environments are provided.

For the full article: REFLECTIONS OF THE STATE: THE PUBLIC SCHOOL MODELS OF THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA


Jan Vincent Meertens:
Gaming in citizenship education

Abstract: As of 2006, Dutch primary, secondary and special education schools have the legal assignment to pay attention to culture and offer citizenship classes. Through this offer, students receive lessons about the fact that the Netherlands has become a country with much diversity. The core focus is on the Dutch state structure and the democratic institutions of freedom, equality, and solidarity. Attention is also paid to cultural competence. Shedding light on the history of current diversity and future diversity expectations can prepare students to be the citizens that the future will require. This article explores the use of gaming in enhancing intercultural awareness games for young students, ages 8 to 12. It will discuss the process of awareness creation through 5 components: Knowledge, attitude, skill, reflection and behaviour. The core of the article will review the inception and development of Empathy Land, how it can contribute to citizenship education and how its impact can be possibly measured. Empathy Land is a game developed by the Connect2Us foundation that focuses on helping children ultimately understand what we have in common and that our differences create opportunities to strengthen the fabric of our society. The article will use the Dutch culture as the context within which I will explore the subject.

For the full article: Empathy Land and Education


Karina Bagration. Huib Wursten,
Education in times of war

Abstract:  Russia’s invasion of Ukraine is displacing millions of people, most of them women and children More than two-thirds of children in Ukraine have been displaced from their homes since the start of the conflict, leading to significant interruptions to regular schooling.  Education organization Osvitoria estimates that approximately 5.7 million school-age children in Ukraine are impacted by the conflict. It comes after two years of Covid. Ukraine refugee numbers are estimated to be more than 6 million 

In the midst of conflict, Education continues. Political insecurity in Ukraine however has extended the disruptions to Education due to the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, schools in the country have moved back online. This paper will look at the implications.

For full article: Education in times of crisis

 

Reiko Tashiro: Needs for CQ Education in Japan

In Japan, the amount of absenteeism in compulsory education was a record high in 2021. Despite the studies and measures taken by the education ministry, the number is worsening.  This article studies the author’s observations, literature with a particular focus on students with developmental disabilities, and cultural analysis using the 7 Mental Images of National Culture. In conclusion, the author hypothesizes that the cultural perception of diversity influences the phenomenon and suggests the need for inclusive culturally intelligent (CQ) education that considers cultural influences.

For the full article: Absenteeism in Japanese Compulsary Education

 

Publishers: 

Huib Wursten, huibwursten@gmail.com

Eric Alexander DeGroot,  eric.alexander.degroot@gmail.com

Newsletter

Culture and Education

Culture and Education

CULTURE IMPACT JOURNAL

Defining Culture – Impacting Our World

Special Editions

CULTURE AND EDUCATION

DECEMBER 2022

Edited by Huib Wursten

Publishers: 

Huib Wursten, huibwursten@gmail.com

Eric Alexander DeGroot,  eric.alexander.degroot@gmail.com

Table of content Culture and Education:

Editorial : Huib Wursten

Editorial Culture and Education

According to Google Scholar, the most cited article of all the papers I wrote about the influence of culture on societal issues is The impact of culture on Education. Can we introduce best practices in Education across countries? (see: https://www.academia.edu/22731263

 In this paper, published in 2013, the outcome of ranking countries on the quality of Education was explored. In particular, a report, “The Learning Curve” (2013), published by The Economist Magazine’s Intelligence Unit. In this report, an attempt was made to look for “best practices” – approaches that systematically lead to higher quality education, thereby enabling policymakers and practitioners in other countries to “copy and paste” and work towards educational reforms that have proven effective in raising educational achievement in some countries. The surprising conclusion from this report, however, is that almost no practices were found that could be implemented globally.

Because ideas about Education are constantly evolving, it seemed a good idea to come back to this theme nine years later and ask experienced authors to look at culture and Education again

 

Divya Varkey, Masako Kato, Huib Wursten:  “Educational practices and culture shock”

Abstract: Education is culturally very sensitive. What “works” in one culture might be seen as negative in some other cultures. This paper describes and analyzes the cultural experiences of expat parents from different cultures, primarily of the Indian and Japanese authors of this paper, sending their kids to schools in The Netherlands.

For the full article: Educational practices and culture shock.

Agata Sowinska: Dao, Li and Dalton education in China”

Abstract: Mark Clark (Clark M., 2004) once stated that `the modern society is in a deep crisis. Not only moral, spiritual but also aesthetic’. Therefore, there is a need to show the essence of alternative Education in a modern, constantly changing world. The following article takes an an attempt to show the essence of the Dalton Plan as an educational concept for children and teachers to undertake independent, creative, searching, innovative activities that contribute to children’s interests, learning styles and personalities in China.

For the full article:Dao, Li, and Dalton education in China

 

Fernando Lanzer: What are the objectives of Education in a challenging diverse world?

Abstract: The objectives of Education have been described differently in different cultures by many educators and policy makers. However, often, this has been done without an awareness of the underlying cultural values that support and influence these written concepts.

This paper will examine the formulation of educational objectives and make explicit the respective links to the underlying core values of their cultures, using Huib Wursten’s Mental Images as a reference framework. It will subsequently outline the need for a more comprehensive enunciation of educational objectives that can consider core culture value differences and still offer functional effectiveness across cultures in a challenging diverse world.

For the full article:What are the objectives of education a challenging diverse world?

Lisa DeWaard: Refections on the state: The public school models of the United States and Russia

Abstract: This paper examines two very different public schooling systems: The U.S. system and the Russian system. An overview of the historical and political contexts that were at work when each was designed is included. While both systems have changed over time, the founding principles guiding them remain largely the same. A thorough analysis of each approach using the Hofstede Six Dimensions of National Culture for each country reveals a strong resemblance between the underlying values of each nation and its corresponding educational system. Strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches are provided and expected outcomes are analyzed. The rather recent development of private schools in Russia since the revolution in 1991 demonstrates a desire on the part of some Russian parents for some deviation from the previous Soviet model; however, although quite popular, private schools are still quite few. Finally, recommendations for teachers working across these two environments are provided.

For the full article, click here


Jan Vincent Meertens:
Gaming in citizenship education

Abstract: As of 2006, Dutch primary, secondary and special education schools have the legal assignment to pay attention to culture and offer citizenship classes. Through this offer, students receive lessons about the fact that the Netherlands has become a country with much diversity. The core focus is on the Dutch state structure and the democratic institutions of freedom, equality, and solidarity. Attention is also paid to cultural competence. Shedding light on the history of current diversity and future diversity expectations can prepare students to be the citizens that the future will require. This article explores the use of gaming in enhancing intercultural awareness games for young students, ages 8 to 12. It will discuss the process of awareness creation through 5 components: Knowledge, attitude, skill, reflection and behaviour. The core of the article will review the inception and development of Empathy Land, how it can contribute to citizenship education and how its impact can be possibly measured. Empathy Land is a game developed by the Connect2Us foundation that focuses on helping children ultimately understand what we have in common and that our differences create opportunities to strengthen the fabric of our society. The article will use the Dutch culture as the context within which I will explore the subject.

For the full article: Empathy Land and Education


Karina Bagration. Huib Wursten,
Education in times of war

Abstract:  Russia’s invasion of Ukraine is displacing millions of people, most of them women and children More than two-thirds of children in Ukraine have been displaced from their homes since the start of the conflict, leading to significant interruptions to regular schooling.  Education organization Osvitoria estimates that approximately 5.7 million school-age children in Ukraine are impacted by the conflict. It comes after two years of Covid. Ukraine refugee numbers are estimated to be more than 6 million 

In the midst of conflict, Education continues. Political insecurity in Ukraine however has extended the disruptions to Education due to the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, schools in the country have moved back online. This paper will look at the implications.

For full article: Education in times of crisis

 

Chika Miyamori and Reiko Tashiro: Needs for CQ Education in Japan

Abstract: A 2022 survey by Japan’s MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) found that approximately 10,000 out of 133,310 non-Japanese children living in the country of an age where Education is compulsory are either not attending or are likely not attending school. Even though this number has halved since the last survey in 2019, it indicates that insufficient educational opportunities are available for some foreign children. Compulsory Education does not apply to non-Japanese children in Japan. Still, MEXT is requesting that each local board of Education ensures there are opportunities for those children to attend school based on international covenants on human rights. The article will pursue why it occurs in Japan from national culture perspectives and argues the necessity of cultural intelligence (CQ) education in the country

For the full article: Absenteeism in Japanese Compulsary Education

 

Publishers: 

Huib Wursten, huibwursten@gmail.com

Eric Alexander DeGroot,  eric.alexander.degroot@gmail.com

Newsletter

Culture and Education

Culture and Education

CULTURE IMPACT JOURNAL

Defining Culture – Impacting Our World

Special Editions

CULTURE AND EDUCATION

DECEMBER 2022

Edited by Huib Wursten

Publishers: 

Huib Wursten, huibwursten@gmail.com

Eric Alexander DeGroot,  eric.alexander.degroot@gmail.com

Table of content Culture and Education:

Editorial : Huib Wursten

Editorial Culture and Education

According to Google Scholar, the most cited article of all the papers I wrote about the influence of culture on societal issues is The impact of culture on Education. Can we introduce best practices in Education across countries? (see: https://www.academia.edu/22731263

 In this paper, published in 2013, the outcome of ranking countries on the quality of Education was explored. In particular, a report, “The Learning Curve” (2013), published by The Economist Magazine’s Intelligence Unit. In this report, an attempt was made to look for “best practices” – approaches that systematically lead to higher quality education, thereby enabling policymakers and practitioners in other countries to “copy and paste” and work towards educational reforms that have proven effective in raising educational achievement in some countries. The surprising conclusion from this report, however, is that almost no practices were found that could be implemented globally.

Because ideas about Education are constantly evolving, it seemed a good idea to come back to this theme nine years later and ask experienced authors to look at culture and Education again

 

Divya Varkey, Masako Kato, Huib Wursten:  “Educational practices and culture shock”

Abstract: Education is culturally very sensitive. What “works” in one culture might be seen as negative in some other cultures. This paper describes and analyzes the cultural experiences of expat parents from different cultures, primarily of the Indian and Japanese authors of this paper, sending their kids to schools in The Netherlands.

For the full article: Educational practices and culture shock.

 

Agata Sowinska: Dao, Li and Dalton education in China”

Abstract: Mark Clark (Clark M., 2004) once stated that `the modern society is in a deep crisis. Not only moral, spiritual but also aesthetic’. Therefore, there is a need to show the essence of alternative Education in a modern, constantly changing world. The following article takes an an attempt to show the essence of the Dalton Plan as an educational concept for children and teachers to undertake independent, creative, searching, innovative activities that contribute to children’s interests, learning styles and personalities in China.

For the full article:Dao, Li, and Dalton education in China

 

Fernando Lanzer: What are the objectives of Education in a challenging diverse world?

Abstract: The objectives of Education have been described differently in different cultures by many educators and policy makers. However, often, this has been done without an awareness of the underlying cultural values that support and influence these written concepts.

This paper will examine the formulation of educational objectives and make explicit the respective links to the underlying core values of their cultures, using Huib Wursten’s Mental Images as a reference framework. It will subsequently outline the need for a more comprehensive enunciation of educational objectives that can consider core culture value differences and still offer functional effectiveness across cultures in a challenging diverse world.

For the full article:What are the objectives of education a challenging diverse world?

 

Lisa DeWaard: Refections on the state: The public school models of the United States and Russia

Abstract: This paper examines two very different public schooling systems: The U.S. system and the Russian system. An overview of the historical and political contexts that were at work when each was designed is included. While both systems have changed over time, the founding principles guiding them remain largely the same. A thorough analysis of each approach using the Hofstede Six Dimensions of National Culture for each country reveals a strong resemblance between the underlying values of each nation and its corresponding educational system. Strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches are provided and expected outcomes are analyzed. The rather recent development of private schools in Russia since the revolution in 1991 demonstrates a desire on the part of some Russian parents for some deviation from the previous Soviet model; however, although quite popular, private schools are still quite few. Finally, recommendations for teachers working across these two environments are provided.

For the full article, click here

 


Jan Vincent Meertens:
Gaming in citizenship education

Abstract: As of 2006, Dutch primary, secondary and special education schools have the legal assignment to pay attention to culture and offer citizenship classes. Through this offer, students receive lessons about the fact that the Netherlands has become a country with much diversity. The core focus is on the Dutch state structure and the democratic institutions of freedom, equality, and solidarity. Attention is also paid to cultural competence. Shedding light on the history of current diversity and future diversity expectations can prepare students to be the citizens that the future will require. This article explores the use of gaming in enhancing intercultural awareness games for young students, ages 8 to 12. It will discuss the process of awareness creation through 5 components: Knowledge, attitude, skill, reflection and behaviour. The core of the article will review the inception and development of Empathy Land, how it can contribute to citizenship education and how its impact can be possibly measured. Empathy Land is a game developed by the Connect2Us foundation that focuses on helping children ultimately understand what we have in common and that our differences create opportunities to strengthen the fabric of our society. The article will use the Dutch culture as the context within which I will explore the subject.

For the full article: Empathy Land and Education

 


Karina Bagration. Huib Wursten,
Education in times of war

Abstract:  Russia’s invasion of Ukraine is displacing millions of people, most of them women and children More than two-thirds of children in Ukraine have been displaced from their homes since the start of the conflict, leading to significant interruptions to regular schooling.  Education organization Osvitoria estimates that approximately 5.7 million school-age children in Ukraine are impacted by the conflict. It comes after two years of Covid. Ukraine refugee numbers are estimated to be more than 6 million 

In the midst of conflict, Education continues. Political insecurity in Ukraine however has extended the disruptions to Education due to the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, schools in the country have moved back online. This paper will look at the implications.

For full article: Education in times of crisis

 

Chika Miyamori and Reiko Tashiro: Needs for CQ Education in Japan

Abstract: A 2022 survey by Japan’s MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) found that approximately 10,000 out of 133,310 non-Japanese children living in the country of an age where Education is compulsory are either not attending or are likely not attending school. Even though this number has halved since the last survey in 2019, it indicates that insufficient educational opportunities are available for some foreign children. Compulsory Education does not apply to non-Japanese children in Japan. Still, MEXT is requesting that each local board of Education ensures there are opportunities for those children to attend school based on international covenants on human rights. The article will pursue why it occurs in Japan from national culture perspectives and argues the necessity of cultural intelligence (CQ) education in the country

For the full article, click here

 

Publishers: 

Huib Wursten, huibwursten@gmail.com

Eric Alexander DeGroot,  eric.alexander.degroot@gmail.com

Newsletter

Culture and Education

CULTURE AND EDUCATION

CULTURE IMPACT JOURNAL

Defining Culture – Impacting Our World

Special Editions

CULTURE AND EDUCATION

DCEMBER 2022

Edited by Huib Wursten

 

Publishers: 

Huib Wursten, huibwursten@gmail.com

Eric Alexander DeGroot,  eric.alexander.degroot@gmail.com

Table of content Culture and Education:

Editorial : Huib Wursten

 

Editorial Culture and Education

According to Google Scholar, the most cited article of all the papers I wrote about the influence of culture on societal issues is The impact of culture on Education. Can we introduce best practices in Education across countries? http

 In this paper, published in 2013, the outcome of ranking countries on the quality of Education was explored. In particular, a report, “The Learning Curve” (2013), published by The Economist Magazine’s Intelligence Unit. In this report, an attempt was made to look for “best practices” – approaches that systematically lead to higher quality education, thereby enabling policymakers and practitioners in other countries to “copy and paste” and work towards educational reforms that have proven effective in raising educational achievement in some countries. The surprising conclusion from this report, however, is that almost no practices were found that could be implemented globally.

Because ideas about Education are constantly evolving, it seemed a good idea to come back to this theme nine years later and ask experienced authors to look at culture and Education again

 

Divya Varkey, Masako Kato, Huib Wursten:  “Educational practices and culture shock”

Abstract: Education is culturally very sensitive. What “works” in one culture might be seen as negative in some other cultures. This paper describes and analyzes the cultural experiences of expat parents from different cultures, primarily of the Indian and Japanese authors of this paper, sending their kids to schools in The Netherlands.

For the full article, click here: https://culture-impact.net/educational-practices-and-culture-shock/ 

 

 

Agata Sowinska: Dao, Li and Dalton education in China”

Abstract: Mark Clark (Clark M., 2004) once stated that `the modern society is in a deep crisis. Not only moral, spiritual but also aesthetic’. Therefore, there is a need to show the essence of alternative Education in a modern, constantly changing world. The following article takes an an attempt to show the essence of the Dalton Plan as an educational concept for children and teachers to undertake independent, creative, searching, innovative activities that contribute to children’s interests, learning styles and personalities in China.

For the full article, click here:  https://culture-impact.net/dao-li-and-dalto…ucation-in-china/

 

 

Fernando Lanzer: What are the objectives of Education in a challenging diverse world?

Abstract: The objectives of Education have been described differently in different cultures by many educators and policy makers. However, often, this has been done without an awareness of the underlying cultural values that support and influence these written concepts.

This paper will examine the formulation of educational objectives and make explicit the respective links to the underlying core values of their cultures, using Huib Wursten’s Mental Images as a reference framework. It will subsequently outline the need for a more comprehensive enunciation of educational objectives that can consider core culture value differences and still offer functional effectiveness across cultures in a challenging diverse world.

For the full article, click here

Lisa DeWaard: Refections on the state: The public school models of the United States and Russia

Abstract: This paper examines two very different public schooling systems: The U.S. system and the Russian system. An overview of the historical and political contexts that were at work when each was designed is included. While both systems have changed over time, the founding principles guiding them remain largely the same. A thorough analysis of each approach using the Hofstede Six Dimensions of National Culture for each country reveals a strong resemblance between the underlying values of each nation and its corresponding educational system. Strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches are provided and expected outcomes are analyzed. The rather recent development of private schools in Russia since the revolution in 1991 demonstrates a desire on the part of some Russian parents for some deviation from the previous Soviet model; however, although quite popular, private schools are still quite few. Finally, recommendations for teachers working across these two environments are provided.

For the full article, click here

Jan Vincent Meertens: Gaming in citizenship education

Abstract: As of 2006, Dutch primary, secondary and special education schools have the legal assignment to pay attention to culture and offer citizenship classes. Through this offer, students receive lessons about the fact that the Netherlands has become a country with much diversity. The core focus is on the Dutch state structure and the democratic institutions of freedom, equality, and solidarity. Attention is also paid to cultural competence. Shedding light on the history of current diversity and future diversity expectations can prepare students to be the citizens that the future will require. This article explores the use of gaming in enhancing intercultural awareness games for young students, ages 8 to 12. It will discuss the process of awareness creation through 5 components: Knowledge, attitude, skill, reflection and behaviour. The core of the article will review the inception and development of Empathy Land, how it can contribute to citizenship education and how its impact can be possibly measured. Empathy Land is a game developed by the Connect2Us foundation that focuses on helping children ultimately understand what we have in common and that our differences create opportunities to strengthen the fabric of our society. The article will use the Dutch culture as the context within which I will explore the subject.

For the full article, click here

Karina Bagration. Huib Wursten, Education in times of war

Abstract:  Russia’s invasion of Ukraine is displacing millions of people, most of them women and children More than two-thirds of children in Ukraine have been displaced from their homes since the start of the conflict, leading to significant interruptions to regular schooling.  Education organization Osvitoria estimates that approximately 5.7 million school-age children in Ukraine are impacted by the conflict. It comes after two years of Covid. Ukraine refugee numbers are estimated to be more than 6 million 

In the midst of conflict, Education continues. Political insecurity in Ukraine however has extended the disruptions to Education due to the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, schools in the country have moved back online. This paper will look at the implications.

For the full article, click here:  https://culture-impact.net/education-in-times-of-crisis/

 

Chika Miyamori and Reiko Tashiro: Needs for CQ Education in Japan

Abstract: A 2022 survey by Japan’s MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) found that approximately 10,000 out of 133,310 non-Japanese children living in the country of an age where Education is compulsory are either not attending or are likely not attending school. Even though this number has halved since the last survey in 2019, it indicates that insufficient educational opportunities are available for some foreign children. Compulsory Education does not apply to non-Japanese children in Japan. Still, MEXT is requesting that each local board of Education ensures there are opportunities for those children to attend school based on international covenants on human rights. The article will pursue why it occurs in Japan from national culture perspectives and argues the necessity of cultural intelligence (CQ) education in the country

For the full article, click here

 

Publishers: 

Huib Wursten, huibwursten@gmail.com

Eric Alexander DeGroot,  eric.alexander.degroot@gmail.com

Newsletter

Culture and Education

Culture And Education

CULTURE IMPACT JOURNAL

Defining Culture – Impacting Our World

Special Editions

CULTURE AND EDUCATION

December 2022

Edited by Huib Wursten

Publishers: 

Huib Wursten, huibwursten@gmail.com

Eric Alexander DeGroot,  eric.alexander.degroot@gmail.com

Table of content Culture and Education:

Editorial : Huib Wursten

 

Editorial Culture and Education

According to Google Scholar, the most cited article of all the papers I wrote about the influence of culture on societal issues is The impact of culture on Education. Can we introduce best practices in Education across countries? http

 In this paper, published in 2013, the outcome of ranking countries on the quality of Education was explored. In particular, a report, “The Learning Curve” (2013), published by The Economist Magazine’s Intelligence Unit. In this report, an attempt was made to look for “best practices” – approaches that systematically lead to higher quality education, thereby enabling policymakers and practitioners in other countries to “copy and paste” and work towards educational reforms that have proven effective in raising educational achievement in some countries. The surprising conclusion from this report, however, is that almost no practices were found that could be implemented globally.

 Because ideas about Education are constantly evolving, it seemed a good idea to come back to this theme nine years later and ask experienced authors to look at culture and Education again

 

Divya Varkey, Masako Kato, Huib Wursten:  “Educational practices and culture shock”

Abstract: Education is culturally very sensitive. What “works” in one culture might be seen as negative in some other cultures. This paper describes and analyzes the cultural experiences of expat parents from different cultures, primarily of the Indian and Japanese authors of this paper, sending their kids to schools in The Netherlands.

For the full article, click here: https://culture-impact.net/educational-practices-and-culture-shock/ 

 

Agata Sowinska: Dao, Li and Dalton education in China”

Abstract: Mark Clark (Clark M., 2004) once stated that `the modern society is in a deep crisis. Not only moral, spiritual but also aesthetic’. Therefore, there is a need to show the essence of alternative Education in a modern, constantly changing world. The following article takes an an attempt to show the essence of the Dalton Plan as an educational concept for children and teachers to undertake independent, creative, searching, innovative activities that contribute to children’s interests, learning styles and personalities in China.

For the full article, click here:  https://culture-impact.net/dao-li-and-dalto…ucation-in-china/

 

Fernando Lanzer: What are the objectives of Education in a challenging diverse world?

Abstract: The objectives of Education have been described differently in different cultures by many educators and policy makers. However, often, this has been done without an awareness of the underlying cultural values that support and influence these written concepts. This paper will examine the formulation of educational objectives and make explicit the respective links to the underlying core values of their cultures, using Huib Wursten’s Mental Images as a reference framework. It will subsequently outline the need for a more comprehensive enunciation of educational objectives that can consider core culture value differences and still offer functional effectiveness across cultures in a challenging diverse world

For the full article click: https://culture-impact.net/what-are-the-objectives-of-education-a-challenging-diverse-world

Lisa DeWaard: Refections on the state: The public school models of the United States and Russia

Abstract: This paper examines two very different public schooling systems: The U.S. system and the Russian system. An overview of the historical and political contexts that were at work when each was designed is included. While both systems have changed over time, the founding principles guiding them remain largely the same. A thorough analysis of each approach using the Hofstede Six Dimensions of National Culture for each country reveals a strong resemblance between the underlying values of each nation and its corresponding educational system. Strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches are provided and expected outcomes are analyzed. The rather recent development of private schools in Russia since the revolution in 1991 demonstrates a desire on the part of some Russian parents for some deviation from the previous Soviet model; however, although quite popular, private schools are still quite few. Finally, recommendations for teachers working across these two environments are provided.

For the full article, click here

Jan Vincent Meertens: Gaming in citizenship education

Abstract: As of 2006, Dutch primary, secondary and special education schools have the legal assignment to pay attention to culture and offer citizenship classes. Through this offer, students receive lessons about the fact that the Netherlands has become a country with much diversity. The core focus is on the Dutch state structure and the democratic institutions of freedom, equality, and solidarity. Attention is also paid to cultural competence. Shedding light on the history of current diversity and future diversity expectations can prepare students to be the citizens that the future will require. This article explores the use of gaming in enhancing intercultural awareness games for young students, ages 8 to 12. It will discuss the process of awareness creation through 5 components: Knowledge, attitude, skill, reflection and behaviour. The core of the article will review the inception and development of Empathy Land, how it can contribute to citizenship education and how its impact can be possibly measured. Empathy Land is a game developed by the Connect2Us foundation that focuses on helping children ultimately understand what we have in common and that our differences create opportunities to strengthen the fabric of our society. The article will use the Dutch culture as the context within which I will explore the subject.

For the full article, click here:  https://culture-impact.net/empathy-land-and-education/

Karina Bagration. Huib Wursten, Education in times of war

Abstract:  Russia’s invasion of Ukraine is displacing millions of people, most of them women and children More than two-thirds of children in Ukraine have been displaced from their homes since the start of the conflict, leading to significant interruptions to regular schooling.  Education organization Osvitoria estimates that approximately 5.7 million school-age children in Ukraine are impacted by the conflict. It comes after two years of Covid. Ukraine refugee numbers are estimated to be more than 6 million 

In the midst of conflict, Education continues. Political insecurity in Ukraine however has extended the disruptions to Education due to the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, schools in the country have moved back online. This paper will look at the implications.

 For the full article, click here:  https://culture-impact.net/education-in-times-of-crisis/

 

Chika Miyamori and Reiko Tashiro: Needs for CQ Education in Japan

Abstract: A 2022 survey by Japan’s MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) found that approximately 10,000 out of 133,310 non-Japanese children living in the country of an age where Education is compulsory are either not attending or are likely not attending school. Even though this number has halved since the last survey in 2019, it indicates that insufficient educational opportunities are available for some foreign children. Compulsory Education does not apply to non-Japanese children in Japan. Still, MEXT is requesting that each local board of Education ensures there are opportunities for those children to attend school based on international covenants on human rights. The article will pursue why it occurs in Japan from national culture perspectives and argues the necessity of cultural intelligence (CQ) education in the country

For the full article, click here

 

Publishers: 

Huib Wursten, huibwursten@gmail.com

Eric Alexander DeGroot,  eric.alexander.degroot@gmail.com

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Why do men play more sport than women? From the “male warrior” to the “crazy bastard hypothesis”: an evolutionary perspective

Paulo Finuras, PhD

Guest Associate Professor at ISG – Business & Economics School of Lisbon

Associate partner Hofstede Insights Portugal

Synopsis

This article seeks to understand why sport in general, and certain sports activities in particular, tend to be more practiced by men. It is suggested that behind this phenomenon will be strategies associated with male and female behavior that are inscribed in the different signaling strategies with reproductive final objectives.

Understanding human behavior through evolutionary lenses implies going beyond immediate explanations and also seeking absolute explanations. To understand this, it is necessary to understand not only the ontogeny of the behavior (mechanism and development) but its phylogeny (function and origin). I propose that the “hypothesis of male warrior and the crazy bastard” together, can give a deeper explanation as to why men, more than women, practice more sports and some are even an exclusive male.

Key words

Evolution, Intra sexual competition, Men, Reproduction, Sexual Strategy, , Sport

Article structure

Introduction

Men, women and the practice of sport: what is hidden behind it?

What does our evolutionary psychology tell us about this?

Conclusion

Why do men play more sport than women? From the “male warrior” to the “crazy bastard hypothesis”: an evolutionary perspective

Introduction

An analysis of the main literature in the social sciences shows that there are multiple examples of human tribalism, as well as a propensity for individuals to categorize themselves based on their group affiliation favoring treatment of members of their group. Several authors, with particular emphasis on Mark van Vugt (2006), believe that this phenomenon is a group and adaptive response to the threats of the conflicting group coalitions of human males, both in ancestral environments and in modern environments, having affected the psychology of men and women in different ways.

In this article I seek a reflection from the evolutionary point of view that helps us understand and explain why men are more prone to the practice of sport and why some sports are practically a male exclusive.

Men, women and the practice of sport: what is hidden behind it?

That men die earlier and earlier than women, commit more crimes and more violence, have more accidents, take more risks, write more books, master humor, occupy most positions of power and leadership in societies and organizations and are war-takers, it is a fact based on history, our common experience and all available statistics.

I propose that the fact that men, more than women, are also playing and watching sports, is part of this evolutionary line of something that is more important to men than to women. The reason is also relatively understandable from the evolutionary point of view. It is that, as Steve Stewart-Williams (2020) pointed out, the “general rule remains: what females want, males evolve to provide it”.

On the whole, all this seems to be related to the so-called “male warrior hypothesis” proposed by Mark van Vugt, David de Cremer and Dirk P. Janssen (2007) and can help to understand and explain the difference that men have in their relationship with sports practice and also in their support of it as spectators,  which is significantly higher than that of women when compared. It is that, as in other activities mentioned above, sport and its practice are also essentially dominated by men, whether as practitioners or as spectators. And once again, the evolutionary paradigm can help us understand this if we perceive the origin and root of the phenomenon. That’s what I’m on next.

What does our evolutionary psychology tell us about this?

The answer will probably be for the same reason that they also commit more crimes, write more books, take more risks and have more need to occupy positions of power and leadership in all areas of life in society. It is that, whenever they can, men seek and try to signal their abilities, qualities and resources in the great storefront of reproduction.

As Lombardo (2012) argued[1], “sport evolved in the context of male intrasexual competition…a system that allows athletes to display, and male spectators to evaluate, the (physical) qualities of potential allies and rivals, particularly those necessary for warfare”

According to this author, sport began as a way for men to develop the skills needed in primitive hunting and warfare, and then developed to act primarily as a lek where athletes display, and male spectators evaluate the qualities of potential allies and rivals.

Again, as Lombardo put it, “the most popular modern male sports require the skills needed for success in male-male physical competition and primitive hunting and warfare, champion male athletes obtain high status and thereby reproductive opportunities in ways that parallel those gained by successful primitive hunters and warriors; men pay closer attention than do women to male sports so they can evaluate potential allies and rivals, and male sports became culturally more important when opportunities to evaluate potential allies and rivals declined as both the survival importance of hunting and the proportion of men who experience combat decreased.” So, in a way we should approach the practice and the evolution of sports as an adaptive hypothesis.

Sporting events, as the statistics of the live television broadcasts show it, are the ones that capture the most attention and the most audiences have in the world.

We’ll ask, why? Why are human beings in general, and men in particular, so attracted to this type of activity that they are thousands of years old? What does our evolutionary psychology tell us about this? In fact, it says a lot[2].

If we look closely, most sports activities have, in a sense, some whatsoever about activities that our ancestors had to perform simply to survive. Whether running, throwing, jumping, rowing, chasing or trying to dominate opponents, to conquer any goal, both physically and through some object (such as the ball, for example) are examples of this.

In sports with a strong physical component (which are the majority of them, in fact), men are more likely and numerous to practice them, either in quantity or in quality of their own performance. In addition, men have about 30 times more testosterone than women, being stronger, faster and more aggressive, something that, in ancient and adaptive times, has always been important to ensure the survival of themselves and their groups or tribes, both in war, as in the conquest of territories and resources, or in defense against predators or enemies,  or, still, simply, in the hunt.

The so-called “warrior man hypothesis”, coined and proposed by scientists Mark van Vugt, David de Cremer and Dirk P. Janssen (2007), seems to be the best way to understand this phenomenon from an evolutionary point of view.

This scientist suggests that male psychology was essentially shaped during our evolution by the need for cooperation within groups and competition between groups, whether to conquer, acquire or protect reproductive and scarce resources. Thus, gender-specific selective pressures will have favored cooperation among the group members, combined with the manifest hostility and aggression against foreigners. This hypothesis is supported by investigations (Bowles & Gintis, 2011; Halevy, Bornstein, & Sagiv, 2009) suggesting that the scenario of conflict between groups promotes cooperation and internal cohesion among members of the ingroup and aggression against members of the outgroup.

And there is yet another hypothesis, called, in the original, by “The Crazy Bastard Hypothesis” , which hold that taking risks, voluntarily, and engaging in dangerous nonviolent activities has, in itself, a signaling value of abilities and qualities of those who do so[3].

In fact, in 2014, researchers from UCLA (Fessler, D.M. T., Tiokhin, L. B., Holbrook, C., Gervais, M. M., & Snyder, J. K.) sought to find out why young people are disproportionately involved in both violent and nonviolent activities in which both entail high risks of injury or even death. This is how the so-called “crazy bastard hypothesis” came about. As mentioned above, this hypothesis proposes that young people are attracted to dangerous activities and to take risks, because they thus reveal their courage, a propensity that makes a man be faced either as a dangerous enemy and/or a potential useful ally. Interestingly, the researchers found also that people tend to conceive of men and their propensity to take risks as being larger and stronger, although in reality there is no link between size or physical size and the propensity to take risk. It is likely that this voluntary risk-taking guidance can serve as a capacity signaling function, so that risk-prone individuals are seen as “more formidable” than individuals averse to it. [4]

This is probably also, alongside the previous “male warrior hypothesis”, one of the reasons that helps us understand and explain why men, more than women, play more sports and, especially, why, also, some of these sports activities, which are dangerous, are typical when not exclusive to men.[5]

It is worth highlighting three important aspects: first, we know that men tend to expose themselves much more to dangerous displays and situations of greater risk (such as war), seeking, whenever they can, to display their capabilities and resources in the mating showcase. Corroborating this idea is the fact that, globally, men commit more than 85% of all homicides, 91% of all same-sex homicides and 97% of all homicides between men and women and the killer are unrelated to each other.[6][7].

Second, the “relative value” of men for reproduction is lower than that of women because the number of sperm of man is much higher than the number of eggs of a woman, which makes the latter “more” valuable and less risk-prone (since the potential danger that comes from the death of the mother to her descendants had always been a crucial factor for her survival).

Third, sports that imply more radicalism or extreme reach are more common among men than among women given the greater male variability of behaviour.

In this vein, a relatively recent study (Thöni & Volk, 2021) suggests that men are generally much more likely than women to make choices and make extreme decisions. In an investigation involving more than 50,000 participants spread across 97 samples, an investigation team sought to analyses sexual differences in areas such as altruism, cooperation, trust, justice and attitudes towards time and risk in economic decision-making. Evidence of greater and systematic male variability was found, and the results suggest that men’s most extreme choices and decisions may be both positive and negative. This study points out that men, compared to women, have much more possibilities of being at the extremes of the behavioral spectrum, acting in a way, now very selfish, or very selfless, now very confident or very suspicious, “[…] being more focused on both the very short and the very long term[8].

In short, when men show off and take risks by exercising in sports, what they do is continue to signal their abilities, qualities and resources in terms of their general condition. And they do so because the performance of such practices conveys valuable information in the mating market, a market that is characterized by a general rule that seems to remain this: men compete and women choose from where, any athlete to become a valuable asset in terms of potential mating value[9][10].

Put another way, “honest signaling of abilities”, or the “handicap principle[11], gains, here, a key highlight to understand and explain why men are more likely to practice all kinds of sports with strong physical component. And even in those who are highly mechanical and not fundamentally physical, they also serve to display the courage and resilience of their performers, or their intelligence (as in the case of chess).

As we know, all this information is important in the market and in the mating showcase. It should not surprise us, therefore, that, in our societies, the best male athletes (regardless of the sport practiced) are individuals with more demand for the mating value they represent. Therefore, looking at this phenomenon from this perspective, it is best to see why sports are so important, in particular, for men. Perhaps this will help explain why in some motor sports it is found that there are almost no women doing so (formula 1 or motorcycle racing, etc.).

Conclusion

If we want to understand human behavior through evolutionary lenses we need to look for absolute explanations and not just approximate. Thus, it is as important to perceive the ontogeny of behaviors (mechanism and development) as their phylogeny (function and origin). Only in this way will we be able to fully understand what explains certain differences between men and women as an integral part of deeper strategies that are associated, although not so, with reproductive strategies inscribed in nature, beyond cultural differences and not because of them.

If we accept both hypothesis (“male warrior and the crazy bastard”)”, combined with the “handicap principle”,  we will better understand and explain why men, much more than women, are the main protagonists and sports practitioners.

References and other recommended bibliography and readings

Bowles, S. (2009). Did warfare among ancestral hunter-gatherer groups affect the evolution of human social behaviors. Science, 324 (5932), 1293-129–8. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1168112.

Daniel. T et all. “Foundations of the Crazy Bastard Hypothesis: Nonviolent physical risk-taking enhances conceptualized formidability”, Evolution and Human Behavior, Vol. 35, Issue 1,  2014, p. 26-33,

Lombardo MP. On the Evolution of Sport. Evolutionary Psychology. January 2012. doi:10.1177/147470491201000101

Massar, K. (2022). Men’s Intrasexual Competition. In T. Shackelford (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Evolutionary Perspectives on Sexual Psychology (Cambridge Handbooks in Psychology, pp. 84-110). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781108943543.006

Miller, G. (2001). The mating mind. Nature. London: Random House.

Moller (Eds.), Annals of the NY Academy of Sciences: Vol. 907. Evolutionary perspectives on human reproductive behaviour (pp. 114-131). New York: New York Academy of Sciences.

Thöni, C., & Volk, S. (2021). Converging evidence for greater male variability in time, risk, and social preferences.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(23), e2026112118. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2026112118.

Tracy, J., & Robins, R. (2004). Show your pride: Evidence for a discrete emotion expression. Psychological Science, 15, 194-197. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.01503008.x.

Trivers, R., & Seger, J. (1986). Asymmetry in the evolution of female mating preferences. Nature,

Van Vugt, M. (2008). Follow me: The origins of leadership. New Scientist, June 11.

Van Vugt, M. M., King, A., Johnson, D. (2009). The origins and evolution of leadership. Current Biology, 19, R911-R916. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2009.07.027.

Van Vugt, M., & Giphart, R. (2016). Mismatch – How our stone age brain deceives us every day & what we can do about it. London: Robinson.

Van Vugt, M., & Spisak, R. (2008). Sex differences in the emergence of leadership during competitions within and between groups. Sage Journal, 19. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02168.x.

van Vugt, M., de Cremer, D., & Janssen, D. P. (2007). Gender differences in cooperation and competition: The male-warrior hypothesis. Psychological Science, 18(1), 19-23. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01842.x.

Zahavi, A., (1997). The handicap principle: A missing piece of Darwin’s puzzle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[1] Lombardo MP. On the Evolution of Sport. Evolutionary Psychology. January 2012. doi:10.1177/147470491201000101

[2] Maybe you don’t know, but men are also much more likely to watch sporting events involving physical confrontations (such as boxing or martial arts), or in which cooperation plays a key role, such as football, basketball, handball, hockey or any other team games. In fact, statistics suggest that men, on average, watch three times more than women at sporting events and experience these same events in a much more intense and dramatic way, often ending in  physical confrontations or hospitalizations.

[3] See on this subject, Daniel M.T. Fessler, Leonid B. Tiokhin, Colin Holbrook, Matthew M. Gervais, Jeffrey K. Snyder, In “Foundations of the Crazy Bastard Hypothesis: Nonviolent physical risk-taking enhances conceptualized formidability,”, Evolution and Human Behavior, Vol. 35, Issue 1, 2014, pp. 26-33,

[4] In fact, other researchers had already described this tendency of young people to take risks as something designated as “young male syndrome”.

[5]Despite more than 900 drivers having participated in F1 Grand Stakes in the past 73 years, only two riders have been women (i.e., 0.002%): Maria Teresa de Filippis (1958) and Lella Lombardi (1975 and 1976).

[6]For example, with the say  , for every 100 women aged between 20 and 24 who die of homicide, thus die 717 men, and for every 100 women who are in adult prisons, there are 1,000 men (Sources: Federal Bureau of Prisons, National Center for Health Statistics, cited by author Thomas Mortenson and Congressional Research Service; ScienceDaily; Bureau of Labor Statistics; Census Bureau).

[7] To learn more, see McAndrew (2009).

[8] Previous research involved two large-scale meta-analyses of economic decision-making studies and organizational citizenship behavior with more than 20,000 participants. Although the researchers found no differences in the degree to which men and women behaved cooperatively on average, they found strong evidence of greater male variability in cooperation. It seems clear to me that these differences will most likely have evolutionary roots, coexisting with other alternative explanations for the existence of what is often referred to as greater male variability of behavior..

[9] In particular , their mental and physical abilities, their flexibility, endurance and courage, as well as dexterity and coordination skills

[10] This makes perfect sense, because if women prefer to mate with men with more abilities, qualities or resources, then men seek to increase their reproductive prospects by displaying their abilities, and sports activity is a good means to signal it, not being very different from the “peacock tail”.

[11]Originally formulated by biologist Amot Zahavi. To learn more, Vd. Zahavi (1975); Zahavi and Zahavi (1997). In short, the principle of handicap, as is known, postulates that all behaviors (or characteristics) that are costly to their holders (and are therefore difficult to fake) tend to be an honest way of signaling the qualities and resources of their owners.